An Indigenous Psychosocial Intervention for the Sexuality Problem of Men in Indonesian Urban Areas: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Kus Hanna Rahmi Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Indonesia
  • Adi Fahrudin Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Indonesia
Keywords: Help-Seeking, Mental Health, Psychosocial Intervention, Sexual Problem


This systematic literature review aims to analyze the psychosocial and psychosexual interventions for addressing sexual health problems among men in urban areas of Indonesia, with a focus on indigenous practices such as Mak Erot. The review follows the PRISMA guidelines, involving a comprehensive search of multiple databases, selection of relevant studies, data extraction, and synthesis. List the databases and other sources searched: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Indonesian local journals, grey literature, and reference lists of selected articles. Search term strategies with the combination used include; Psychosocial interventions", Psychosexual problems", "Male sexual health", "Indigenous treatments", "Mak Erot", and "Urban areas in Indonesia". Based on data analysis the findings highlight the significance of culturally sensitive interventions in improving sexual and mental health outcomes for men in urban Indonesian contexts.


Download data is not yet available.


Arksey, H. and O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19-32.
Ayaz‐Alkaya, S. (2018). Overview of psychosocial problems in individuals with stoma: a literature review. International Wound Journal, 16(1), 243-249.
Badr, H. and Taylor, C. (2008). Sexual dysfunction and spousal communication in couples coping with prostate cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 18(7), 735-746.
Bazzi, A., Yotebieng, K., Otticha, S., Rota, G., Agot, K., Ohaga, S., … & Syvertsen, J. (2019). Prep and the syndemic of substance use, violence, and HIV among female and male sex workers: a qualitative study in Kisumu, Kenya. Journal of the International Aids Society, 22(4).
Beasley, L., Grace, S., & Horstmanshof, L. (2021). Assessing individual readiness for change in healthcare: a review of measurement scales. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 35(8), 1062-1079.
Benedict, C., Traeger, L., Dahn, J., Antoni, M., Zhou, E., Bustillo, N., … & Penedo, F. (2014). Sexual bother in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11(10), 2571-2580.
Blackwood, E. (2018). Indigenous Psychologies of Sexuality: Emerging Perspectives from Indonesia. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 15(1), 87-96.
Blashill, A. and Safren, S. (2015). Body dissatisfaction and condom use self-efficacy: a meta-analysis. Body Image, 12, 73-77.
Bober, S., Recklitis, C., Michaud, A., & Wright, A. (2017). Improvement in sexual function after ovarian cancer: effects of sexual therapy and rehabilitation after treatment for ovarian cancer. Cancer, 124(1), 176-182.
Brennan, D., Ross, L., Dobinson, C., Veldhuizen, S., & Steele, L. (2010). Men’s sexual orientation and health in Canada. Can J Public Health, 101(3), 255-258.

Buller, A., Devries, K., Howard, L., & Bacchus, L. (2014). Associations between intimate partner violence and health among men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos Medicine, 11(3), e1001609.
Carter, J., Stabile, C., Gunn, A., & Sonoda, Y. (2013). The physical consequences of gynecologic cancer surgery and their impact on sexual, emotional, and quality of life issues. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10 (Supplement_1), 21-34.
Carvalheira, A., Graham, C., Štulhofer, A., & Træn, B. (2019). Predictors and correlates of sexual avoidance among partnered older adults among Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. European Journal of Ageing, 17(2), 175-184.
Chiumento, A., Rutayisire, T., Sarabwe, E., Hasan, M., Kasujja, R., Nabirinde, R., … & White, R. (2020). Exploring the mental health and psychosocial problems of Congolese refugees living in refugee settings in Rwanda and Uganda: a rapid qualitative study. Conflict and Health, 14(1).
Christensen, B., Grønbæk, M., Osler, M., Pedersen, B., Graugaard, C., & Frisch, M. (2011). Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(7), 1890-1902.
Costa-Cordella, S., Grasso-Cladera, A., Rossi, A., Duarte, J., Guiñazu, F., & Cortés, C. (2022). Internet-based peer support interventions for people living with hiv: a scoping review. Plos One, 17(8), e0269332.
Damayanti, A., Herdiana, I., Alfian, I., & Ardi, R. (2022). Meta-analysis of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy for reducing child sexual behavior in sexually abused children. Journal of Educational Health and Community Psychology, 11(3), 625.
Darmawan, I. G. N. G., Suparta, I. W., & Arsana, K. (2016). Understanding Indigenous Balinese Healing. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research, 6(10), 252-260.
Darmoko, M. (2020). Enlargement of Penis Ala Mak Erot Between Law, Tourism and Health (Are There Negligence and Malpractice Elements?). Proceedings of the International Conference on Law, Economics and Health (ICLEH 2020).
Dawson, S., Vaillancourt-Morel, M., Pierce, M., & Rosen, N. (2020). Biopsychosocial predictors of trajectories of postpartum sexual function in first-time mothers. Health Psychology, 39(8), 700-710.
Dirisu, O., Adediran, M., Omole, A., Akinola, A., Ebenso, B., Shoyemi, E., … & Adebajo, S. (2022). The syndemic of substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and violence: a qualitative exploration of the intersections and implications for HIV/STI prevention among key populations in Lagos, Nigeria. Frontiers in Tropical Diseases, 3.
Ebersöhn, L., Loots, T., Mampane, R., Omidire, M., Rooyen, M., Sefotho, M., … & Nthontho, M. (2018). An indigenous psychology perspective on psychosocial support in Southern Africa as collective, networking, and pragmatic support. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 28(5), 332-347.
Eden, K. and Wylie, K. (2009). Quality of sexual life and menopause. Women S Health, 5(4), 385-396.
El-Khodary, B., Christensen, I., Abou-Dagga, S., Raji, S., & Lyden, S. (2021). Palestinian and Norwegian kindergarten teachers' perspectives on psychosocial support: a qualitative study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.
Endalamaw, A., Gilks, C., Ambaw, F., & Assefa, Y. (2021). Mapping evidence of universal health coverage in the world: a protocol for a scoping review..
Fadzil, F., Anuar, H.M., Ismail, S., Abd Ghani, N., & Ahmad, N. (2012). Urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, as a complementary rehabilitative care in postpartum stroke. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine, 18 4, 415-9 .
Frühauf, S., Gerger, H., Schmidt, H., & Münder, T. (2013). Efficacy of psychological interventions for sexual dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(6), 915-933.
Giddens, S. B., & Liddle, B. J. (2016). Indonesian Healing: Indigenous Networks of Meaning and Power. Medical Anthropology, 35(6), 529-543.
Harkness, A., Bainter, S., O’Cleirigh, C., Mendez, N., Mayer, K., & Safren, S. (2018). Longitudinal effects of syndemics on art non-adherence among sexual minority men. Aids and Behavior, 22(8), 2564-2574.
Hayden, K., Eaton, S., Pethrick, H., Crossman, K., Lenart, B., & Penaluna, L. (2021). A scoping review of text-matching software used for student academic integrity in higher education. Education Research International, 2021, 1-15.
Jeppesen, M., Mogensen, O., Dehn, P., & Jensen, P. (2015). Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 36(3), 122-132.
Kang, H., Kim, H., Park, S., & Kim, J. (2018). Online-based interventions for sexual health among individuals with cancer: a systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1).
Krychman, M., Pereira, L., Carter, J., & Amsterdam, A. (2006). Sexual oncology: sexual health issues in women with cancer. Oncology, 71(1-2), 18-25.
Kuyper, L. and Fokkema, T. (2011). Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBS: an examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(2), 222-233.
L'Etang, S. and Theron, L. (2011). A critical reflection on the participatory action process involved in the development of a cognitive-behavioral-based counseling intervention program for youth living with HIV/AIDS in a rural South African town. Action Research, 10(1), 5-21.
Lin, C., Broström, A., Årestedt, K., Mårtensson, J., Steinke, E., & Pakpour, A. (2019). Using the extended theory of planned behavior to determine factors associated with help-seeking behavior of sexual problems in women with heart failure: a longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 41(1), 54-61.
Lockwood, C., Santos, K., & Pap, R. (2019). Practical guidance for knowledge synthesis: scoping review methods. Asian Nursing Research, 13(5), 287-294.
Lor, M., Thao, S., & Misurelli, S. (2020). Review of hearing loss among racial/ethnic minorities in the united states. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 43(9), 859-876.
MacLean, S., Ritte, R., Thorpe, A., Ewen, S., & Arabena, K. (2017). Health and wellbeing outcomes of programs for indigenous Australians that include strategies to enable the expression of cultural identities: a systematic review. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 23(4), 309.
Miodrag, N., Richards, D., Fedoroff, J., & Watson, S. (2020). Sex and genes, part 2: a biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat challenging sexual behavior in persons with intellectual disabilities including Fragile X syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 38(2), 152-172.
Mitchell, K., Mercer, C., Ploubidis, G., Jones, K., Datta, J., Field, N., … & Wellings, K. (2013). Sexual function in Britain: findings from the third national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles (natsal-3). The Lancet, 382(9907), 1817-1829.
Mohamad, K. and Hong, G. (2018). Psychological intervention with sexually active minors from clinical psychology perspective: a systematic review. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 08(03).
Mollaioli, D., Sansone, A., Ciocca, G., Limoncin, E., Colonnello, E., Lorenzo, G., … & Jannini, E. (2021). Benefits of sexual activity on psychological, relational, and sexual health during the COVID-19 breakout. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 18(1), 35-49.
Moloney, B., Kroll, T., & Lafferty, A. (2020). An exploration of young carers’ experiences of school and their perceptions regarding their future career - a scoping review protocol. HRB Open Research, 3, 41.
Moradi, B. and Huang, Y. (2008). Objectification theory and psychology of women: a decade of advances and future directions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(4), 377-398.
Moreira, E., Brock, G., Db, G., Nicolosi, A., Eo, L., Paik, A., … & Gingell, C. (2005). Help-seeking behaviour for sexual problems: the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59(1), 6-16.
Munn, Z., Peters, M., Stern, C., Tufănaru, C., McArthur, A., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1).
Nagel, T., Robinson, G., Condon, J., & Trauer, T. (2009). Approach to treatment of mental illness and substance dependence in remote indigenous communities: results of a mixed methods study. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17(4), 174-182.
Nare, M. (2023). Evaluating responsivity and resilience in trust in healthcare systems: a scoping literature review. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 67(1), 603-608.
Obol, C., Lampic, C., Wettergren, L., & Ljungman, L. (2020). Experiences of a web-based psycho-educational intervention targeting sexual dysfunction and fertility distress in young adults with cancer—a self-determination theory perspective. Plos One, 15(7), e0236180.
Oram, S., Khalifeh, H., & Howard, L. (2017). Violence against women and mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry, 4(2), 159-170.
Parker, R. G., Herdt, G., Carballo-Diéguez, A., & Slob, A. (2016). Sexuality, Culture, and Society: Shifting Paradigms in Sexuality Research. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(8), 1701-1715.
Permatasari, Y. S., & Salamah, U. (2019). Traditional Healing: The Influence of Modern Psychology in Traditional Therapy. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research, 9(9), 68-75
Pham, M., Rajić, A., Greig, J., Sargeant, J., Papadopoulos, A., & McEwen, S. (2014). A scoping review of scoping reviews: advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(4), 371-385.
Querol, S., Al-Khudairy, L., Iqbal, R., Johnson, S., & Gill, P. (2020). Adolescent undernutrition in south asia: a scoping review protocol. BMJ Open, 10(1), e031955.
Reisner, S., Mimiaga, M., Case, P., Grasso, C., O'Brien, C., Harigopal, P., … & Mayer, K. (2010). Sexually transmitted disease (std) diagnoses and mental health disparities among women who have sex with women screened at an urban community health center, Boston, MA, 2007. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 37(1), 5-12.
Sager, M. and Pistone, I. (2019). Mismatches in the production of a scoping review: highlighting the interplay of (in)formalities. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 25(6), 930-937.
Schmidt, B., Hohlfeld, A., & Leon, N. (2018). Defining and conceptualising data harmonisation: a scoping review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 7(1).
Schutte, L., Melissant, H., Jansen, F., Lissenberg-Witte, B., Leemans, C., Sprangers, M., … & Laan, E. (2021). Effect of stepped care on sexual interest and enjoyment in distressed patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Sexual Medicine, 9(1), 100304-100304.
Sears, C., Robinson, J., & Walker, L. (2017). A comprehensive review of sexual health concerns after cancer treatment and the biopsychosocial treatment options available to female patients. European Journal of Cancer Care, 27(2), e12738.
Selivanov, E., Cudlín, P., & Horáček, P. (2023). Carbon neutrality of forest biomass for bioenergy: a scoping review. Iforest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 16(2), 70-77.
Storholm, E., Satre, D., Kapadia, F., & Halkitis, P. (2015). Depression, compulsive sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking among urban young gay and bisexual men: the p18 cohort study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 1431-1441.
Strobel, C., Oldenburg, D., & Steinhäuser, J. (2022). Factors influencing defensive medicine‐based decision‐making in primary care: a scoping review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 29(3), 529-538.
Sucharew, H. and Macaluso, M. (2019). Methods for research evidence synthesis: the scoping review approach. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 14(7), 416.
Suparti, S., & Yulianto, A. (2019). Traditional and Modern Healing Systems for People with HIV/AIDS in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 7(3), 914-919.
Tapper, E., Kanwal, F., Asrani, S., Ho, C., Ovchinsky, N., Poterucha, J., … & Volk, M. (2018). Patient‐reported outcomes in cirrhosis: a scoping review of the literature. Hepatology, 67(6), 2375-2383.
Taylor, S., Harley, C., Ziegler, L., Brown, J., & Velikova, G. (2011). Interventions for sexual problems following treatment for breast cancer: a systematic review. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 130(3), 711-724.
Thielen, C., Marino, R., Duff, S., Kaplan, G., & Mulcahey, M. (2018). Activity-based rehabilitation interventions of the neurologically impaired upper extremity: description of a scoping review protocol. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 24(3), 288-294.
Tol, W., Patel, V., Tomlinson, M., Baingana, F., Galappatti, A., Panter-Brick, C., … & Ommeren, M. (2011). Research priorities for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings. Plos Medicine, 8(9), e1001096.
Tripathi, M., & Patra, B. (2015). Traditional Healers and Mental Health: An Overview. American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 2(2), 85-93.
Ueno, K., Vaghela, P., & Ritter, L. (2014). Sexual orientation, internal migration, and mental health during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(4), 461-481.
Vargas, B., Mac-Ginty, S., Hoffmann, T., & Martínez, V. (2023). Implementation strategies and outcomes of school-based programs for adolescent suicide prevention: a scoping review protocol. Plos One, 18(5), e0284431.
Widianto, W., & Wibawa, I. D. N. (2018). The Role of Cultural Community in Traditional Healing: A Case Study in Cirebon. Journal of Educational Social Studies, 7(2), 131-140.
Wiklander, M., Strandquist, J., Obol, C., Winterling, J., Rodriguez-Wallberg, K., Fugl-Meyer, K., … & Wettergren, L. (2017). Feasibility of a self-help web-based intervention targeting young cancer patients with sexual problems and fertility distress. Supportive Care in Cancer, 25(12), 3675-3682.
Wilson, M., Lavis, J., & Guţă, A. (2012). Community-based organizations in the health sector: a scoping review. Health Research Policy and Systems, 10(1).
Winterling, J., Wiklander, M., Obol, C., Lampic, C., Eriksson, L., Pelters, B., … & Wettergren, L. (2016). Development of a self-help web-based intervention targeting young cancer patients with sexual problems and fertility distress in collaboration with patient research partners. Jmir Research Protocols, 5(2), e60.
Wong, J., Choi, E., Lo, H., Wong, W., Chio, J., Choi, A., … & Fong, D. (2019). Intimate partner sexual violence and mental health indicators among Chinese emerging adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(19-20),
Wylie, K., Daines, B., Jannini, E., Hallam-Jones, R., Boul, L., Wilson, L., … & Kristensen, E. (2007). Loss of sexual desire in the postmenopausal woman. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(2), 395-405.
Xia, D., Chen, Y., Chang, R., Xu, C., Yu, X., Liu, Y., … & Wang, Y. (2022). Psychosocial problems and condomless anal sex among transgender women in two cities of China: study based on the syndemic framework. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(23), 16161.
Xu, J., Xue, B., Li, L., Qiao, J., Redding, S., & Ouyang, Y. (2022). Psychological interventions for sexual function and satisfaction of women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 32(9-10), 2282-2297.
Yamamoto, K., Hayama, J., Nakayama, K., Yonekura, Y., & Ota, E. (2020). Intervention and efficacy of advance care planning for patients in intensive care units and their families: a scoping review protocol. Nursing Open, 8(2), 997-1001.
Yang, X. (2013). Rural–urban migration and mental and sexual health: a case study in southwestern China. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 2(1), 1-15.
How to Cite
Rahmi, K. H., & Fahrudin, A. (2024). An Indigenous Psychosocial Intervention for the Sexuality Problem of Men in Indonesian Urban Areas: A Systematic Literature Review. Bulletin of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6(2).