Anxiety in Pregnant Women During the Covid-19 Pandemic: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
The prevalence of anxiety experienced by pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic could not be overlooked. This study aims to discover the various causes of anxiety experienced by pregnant women during the pandemic. After explaining the research objectives and obtaining informed consent, author interviewed seven pregnant women. All informant were married, majority of them were working, and all husbands of the interviewees also had permanent jobs. The data analyzed using an interpretive phenomenological approach. The study results show that four main themes cause anxiety in pregnant women amid a pandemic, namely immediate changes, health concerns, access to health services, and social isolation. This study highlights the prevalence of anxiety among pregnant women during covid-19 pandemic. It also emphasizes the importance of taking into consideration factors such as immediate changes, health concerns, access to health care, and social isolation while implementing intervention to reduce this issue. Furthermore, policymakers should prioritize these four main themes in arranging covid-19 mitigation guidelines or protocol specifically for pregnant women.
Barišić, A. (2020). Conceived in the covid-19 crisis: Impact of maternal stress and anxiety on fetal neurobehavioral development. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1–1. https://doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2020.1755838
Basu, A., Kim, H. H., Basaldua, R., Choi, K. W., Charron, L., Kelsall, N., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Wyszynski, D. F., & Koenen, K. C. (2021). A cross-national study of factors associated with women’s perinatal mental health and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLOS ONE, 16(4), e0249780. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249780
Bayrampour, H., Ali, E., McNeil, D. A., Benzies, K., MacQueen, G., & Tough, S. (2016). Pregnancy-related anxiety: A concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 55, 115–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.10.023
Chen, H., Guo, J., Wang, C., Luo, F., Yu, X., Zhang, W., Li, J., Zhao, D., Xu, D., Gong, Q., Liao, J., Yang, H., Hou, W., & Zhang, Y. (2020). Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: A retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet, 395(10226), 809–815. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3
Corbett, G. A., Milne, S. J., Hehir, M. P., Lindow, S. W., & O’connell, M. P. (2020). Health anxiety and behavioural changes of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.04.022
Dennis, C.-L., Brown, H. K., Falah-Hassani, K., Marini, F. C., & Vigod, S. N. (2017). Identifying women at risk for sustained postpartum anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 213, 131–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.02.013
Ding, X.-X., Wu, Y.-L., Xu, S.-J., Zhu, R.-P., Jia, X.-M., Zhang, S.-F., Huang, K., Zhu, P., Hao, J.-H., & Tao, F.-B. (2014). Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 159, 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.027
Fakari, F. R., & Simbar, M. (2020). Coronavirus Pandemic and Worries during Pregnancy; a Letter to Editor. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(1), 1–2.
Feduniw, S., Modzelewski, J., Kwiatkowski, S., & Kajdy, A. (2020). Prevalence and impact of anxiety on mental health of pregnant women in the time of catastrophic events including COVID-19 pandemic–a rapid systematic review.
Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(1), 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017
Heron, J., O’Connor, T. G., Evans, J., Golding, J., & Glover, V. (2004). The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80(1), 65–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.004
Lebel, C., MacKinnon, A., Bagshawe, M., Tomfohr-Madsen, L., & Giesbrecht, G. (2020). Elevated depression and anxiety among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Liu, W., Wang, Q., Zhang, Q., Chen, L., Chen, J., Zhang, B., Lu, Y., Wang, S., Xia, L., Huang, L., Wang, K., Liang, L., Zhang, Y., Turtle, L., Lissauer, D., Lan, K., Feng, L., Yu, H., Liu, Y., & Sun, Z. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) During Pregnancy: A Case Series. https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202002.0373/v1
Mirzadeh, M., & Khedmat, L. (2020). Pregnant women in the exposure to COVID-19 infection outbreak: The unseen risk factors and preventive healthcare patterns. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 0(0), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1749257
Mortazavi, F., Mehrabadi, M., & KiaeeTabar, R. (2021). Pregnant women’s well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 59. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03548-4
Mudra, S., Göbel, A., Barkmann, C., Goletzke, J., Hecher, K., Schulte-Markwort, M., Diemert, A., & Arck, P. (2020). The longitudinal course of pregnancy-related anxiety in parous and nulliparous women and its association with symptoms of social and generalized anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260, 111–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.033
Shahhosseini, Z., Pourasghar, M., Khalilian, A., & Salehi, F. (2015). A Review of the Effects of Anxiety During Pregnancy on Children’s Health. Materia Socio-Medica, 27(3), 200–202. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2015.27.200-202
Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2008). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In Doing Social Psychology Research (pp. 229–254). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470776278.ch10
Smith, J. A., & Shinebourne, P. (2012). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological (pp. 73–82). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-005
Teixeira, C., Figueiredo, B., Conde, A., Pacheco, A., & Costa, R. (2009). Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women and men. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119(1–3), 142–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.03.005
Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), Article 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729
Copyright (c) 2023 Aprezo Pardodi Maba
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution that allows the sharing of articles published with the acknowledgement of authorship and the initial publication in this magazine.
2) The authors are authorized to make additional contracts separately for distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (for example, publication in an institutional repository or as a chapter of the book), as long as there is recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are authorized and encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (for example, in institutional repositories or on their personal pages) at any time before or during the editorial process, as it increases the impact and reference of the published work.