Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Mental Health Continuum Short-Form

  • Andi Tenri Faradiba Universitas Pancasila, Indonesia
  • Anindya Dewi Paramita Universitas Pancasila, Indonesia
  • Airin Triwahyuni Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
  • Urip Purwono Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Keywords: Adaptation, Mental Health, Psychometric Evaluation, Well-Being


The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a tool designed to evaluate an individual's overall mental health and well-being, encompassing emotional, psychological, and social dimensions. Adopted in several countries, including Portugal, South Korea, Italy, and France, the present study aims to adapt the MHC-SF for the Indonesian context and assess its psychometric properties. The adaptation followed the ITC Guidelines for Adapting Tests, an international standard for adapting and psychometrically testing measuring instruments. The content validity was evaluated through the involvement of three experts and four reviewers in assessing the results of the Indonesian translation. Data was collected from a sample of 256 students, who participated by filling out an online questionnaire. The results of the content validity indicated that the 14-item instrument was relevant to the purpose of measuring well-being. Construct validity showed a three-factor structure (emotional well-being, psychological well-being, and social well-being) with a fit model, and all items had a factor loading value greater than .5, indicating their validity. The reliability test revealed consistent results with alpha coefficient values in the range of .7 to .8 for the three dimensions, demonstrating that the instrument can provide consistent results when used on the same individual in different situations. This study concludes that the Indonesian version of the MHC-SF is valid and reliable for assessing an individual's well-being.


Download data is not yet available.


De Boeck, P. (2017). Psychological testing. In Handbook of Item Response Theory (Vol. 3, pp. 313–328). https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/11437_16

Fan, W., & Yan, Z. (2010). Factors affecting response rates of the web survey: A systematic review. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 132–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.10.015

Fonte, C., Silva, I., Vilhena, E., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2020). The Portuguese Adaptation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form for Adult Population. Community Mental Health Journal, 56(2), 368–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-019-00484-8

Guo, C., Tomson, G., Guo, J., Li, X., Keller, C., & Söderqvist, F. (2015). Psychometric evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in Chinese adolescents - a methodological study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-015-0394-2

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2019). Multivariate Data Analysis, Multivariate Data Analysis. In Book (7th ed., Vol. 87, Issue 4). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073–1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00213-6

Joshanloo, M., & Jovanović, V. (2017). The factor structure of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Serbia: an evaluation using exploratory structural equation modeling. Journal of Mental Health, 26(6), 510–515. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1222058

Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2014). The Polish adaptation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 104–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.011

Kennes, A., Peeters, S., Janssens, M., Reijnders, J., Lataster, J., & Jacobs, N. (2020). Psychometric Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) for Dutch Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(11), 3276–3286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01803-4

Keyes, C. (2009). Brief description of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF). In American Journal of Public Health (Vol. 100, Issue 12, pp. 2366–2371). http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2978199&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract%5Cnhttp://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Brief+Description+of+the+Mental+Health+Continuum+Short+Form+(+MHC-SF+)+*#0

Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(2), 207–222. https://doi.org/10.2307/3090197

Keyes, C. L. M. (2007). Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health. American Psychologist, 62(2), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95

Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J. P., Temane, M., Kruger, A., & van Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15(3), 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.572

Lim, Y. J. (2014). Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(4), 356–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282913511431

Lupano Perugini, M. L., de la Iglesia, G., Castro Solano, A., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2017). The mental health continuum–short form (MHC–SF) in the argentinean context: Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 93–108. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v13i1.1163

Orpana, H., Vachon, J., Dykxhoorn, J., & Jayaraman, G. (2017). Measuring positive mental health in Canada: Construct validation of the mental health continuum-short form. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada, 37(4), 123–130. https://doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.37.4.03

Petrillo, G., Capone, V., Caso, D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2015). The Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF) as a Measure of Well-Being in the Italian Context. Social Indicators Research, 121(1), 291–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0629-3

Robinson, M. A. (2018). Using multi-item psychometric scales for research and practice in human resource management. Human Resource Management, 57(3), 739–750. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21852

Salama-Younes, M., & Ismaïl, A. (2011). Validation of the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) for physically active old out. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(1), 24–30.

Santini, Z. I., Torres-Sahli, M., Hinrichsen, C., Meilstrup, C., Madsen, K. R., Rayce, S. B., Baker, M. M., Ten Have, M., Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., & Koushede, V. (2020). Measuring positive mental health and flourishing in Denmark: Validation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) and cross-cultural comparison across three countries. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01546-2

Springer, K. W., & Hauser, R. M. (2006). An assessment of the construct validity of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being: Method, mode, and measurement effects. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1080–1102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.07.004

Vaske, J. J., Beaman, J., & Sponarski, C. C. (2017). Rethinking Internal Consistency in Cronbach’s Alpha. Leisure Sciences, 39(2), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2015.1127189

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Wood, A. M., & Joseph, S. (2010). The absence of positive psychological (eudemonic) well-being as a risk factor for depression: A ten year cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(3), 213–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.032

Wood, P. (2008). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. In The American Statistician (Vol. 62, Issue 1). The Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1198/tas.2008.s98

How to Cite
Faradiba, A. T., Paramita, A. D., Triwahyuni, A., & Purwono, U. (2023). Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Mental Health Continuum Short-Form. Bulletin of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 5(1), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.51214/bocp.v5i1.422